The legions of the Roman Republic and Empire had a fairly standardised dress and armour, particularly from approximately the early to mid 1st century onward, when Lorica Segmentata (segmented armour) was introduced. However the lack of unified production for the Roman army meant that there were still considerable differences in detail. Even the armour produced in state factories varied according to the province of origin. Shields were painted in unique patterns to indicate which cohort a soldier was from. Fragments of surviving clothing and wall paintings indicate that the basic tunic of the Roman soldier was of un-dyed (off-white) or red-dyed wool. Senior commanders are known to have worn white cloaks and plumes. Centurions — the century commanders who made up the long serving backbone of the legions — were distinguished by transverse crests on their helmets, various chest ornaments (phaleræ) corresponding to modern medals, and torques (a symbol borrowed from the Gauls and also used as a military award), and the vine stick (Vitis) that they carried as a mark of their office.