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Deinotherium

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Three species are recognized, all of great size. Deinotherium giganteum is the type species, and is described above. It is primarily a late Miocene species, most common in Europe, and is the only species known from the circum-Mediterranean. Its last reported occurrence is from the middle Pliocene of Romania (2 to 4 million BP). An entire skull, found in the Lower Pliocene beds of Eppelsheim, Hesse-Darmstadt in 1836, was 1. 2 m (3 ft 11 in) long and 0. 9 m (2 ft 11 in) wide, indicating an animal exceeding modern elephants in size. D. indicum is the Asian species, known from India and Pakistan. It is distinguished by a more robust dentition and p4-m3 intravalley tubercles. D. indicum appears in the middle Miocene, and is most common in the late Miocene. It disappeared from the fossil record about 7 million years BP (late Miocene). D. bozasi is the African species. It is characterized by a narrower rostral trough, a smaller but higher nasal aperture, a higher and narrower cranium, and a shorter mandibular symphysis than the other two species. D. bozasi appears at the beginning of the late Miocene, and continues there after the other two species had died out elsewhere. The youngest fossils are from the Kanjera Formation, Kenya, about a million years old (early Pleistocene).



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